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Lead Acid Vs. Lithium Ion – Key Differences

The primary distinction between lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries is that lead-acid batteries need routine maintenance, have a shorter lifespan, and are less expensive than lithium-ion batteries. On the other hand, lithium-ion batteries have a longer lifespan, are more efficient, and are more expensive. When it comes to rechargeable batteries, both lead-acid and lithium-ion are crucial technologies. There are distinguishing chemical and physical characteristics between the two. This blog compares two solutions side-by-side.

What is a Lead Acid battery?

A lead acid battery, first developed by a French researcher in 1859, is rechargeable. This was the first time there had been a rechargeable battery. This battery is distinct from current batteries and has a lower energy density. In addition, the cells in these batteries have a high power-to-weight ratio, allowing them to supply significant surge currents. And because of their lower cost, lead acid batteries are becoming increasingly popular in the automotive sector.

What is a Lithium Ion battery?

The lithium ions in a lithium-ion battery flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode via the electrolyte during discharge, making the battery rechargeable. When charging, the procedure is performed in reverse. Lithium-ion batteries are highly efficient and have a high energy density.

However, it has little memory effect and a modest self-discharge. Since lithium-ion batteries contain flammable electrolytes, they pose a fire and explosion risk if they are ever damaged or charged improperly.

What makes the Lithium Ion battery different from the Lead Acid battery?

Lead Acid vs Lithium Ion batteries: Significant distinctions

  • Depth of Discharge

The term “discharge depth” describes the extent to which a battery is depleted before recharging. If you only use 25% of your battery, the depth of discharge is 25%. The use of batteries does not cause them to drain completely. Instead, they are labelled with a depth of discharge or the amount of water they can hold before needing to be replenished.

It would help if you never drained a lead-acid battery below 50% capacity. However, lithium-ion batteries may survive discharge rates of 80% or more. That indicates they have a greater practical capacity.

  • Effectiveness

When compared to other battery types, lithium-ion ones perform better. Lead acid batteries, for instance, have an efficiency of only 80-85 per cent, depending on the specific model and storage conditions. That implies if 1,000 watts of sunlight enter the batteries, only 800-850 watts remain after charging and discharging.

Lithium-ion batteries have an efficiency of greater than 95%. More than 950 watts of power would be available in the same scenario. A faster battery charging time is the result of increased efficiency.

  • Charge Rate

The charging speed of lithium batteries has increased along with their efficiency. They can be recharged more quickly than lead-acid batteries because they can tolerate a higher charging current. Lead-acid batteries have a finite charge current capacity because they will overheat if charged too quickly.

  • Energy Density

The two lead-acid batteries used for the above analysis weigh roughly 125 pounds. In terms of weight, the lithium battery comes in at 192 pounds. However, this comes at a cost, as lead-acid batteries take up more room while lithium batteries store more power in the same volume.

Conclusion

Lithium-ion batteries are typically more efficient and easier to work with than lead-acid batteries. Lead acid batteries need to be maintained frequently, don’t last very long, and are cheap, while lithium-ion batteries are more efficient, last much longer, and cost a lot more. EV Battery Manufacturers are highly recommended for further research.

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